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Glossary

CADTH

CADTH stands for Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health. This is an independent organization that provides government and other decision-makers with evidence to help them make decisions regarding the Canadian health care system.


Chromosome

Thread-like structure that packages DNA sequences known as genes. DNA, the chemical composition of organic life, is strung together into sequences called “genes.” These are in turn packaged into larger, thread-like structures called “chromosomes.” Human beings have 23 pairs of chromosomes; 22 of these are shared between men and women, but the 23rd pair, the sex chromosomes, are different: women have two X chromosomes and men have an X and a Y chromosome, which is why diseases resulting from genetic mutations on the sex chromosomes are typically more common in men (women have an extra copy that is not mutated). Chromosomes and all their genetic information can be found within each cell of a body, making up a vast, though very tiny, library of repeated information.


cornea

Clear layer at the front of the eye that acts as a barrier, protecting the eye from dirt and germs.


choroid

Layer of cells that lie between the retina and the sclera at the back of the eye. The purpose of the choroid is to provide oxygen and nutrients to the retina.


Cell

Some organisms such as bacteria are made of a single cell. In humans, different cell types come together to form different structures and organs. A cell is microscopic (very tiny) and is made of a small mass surrounded by a membrane. It contains important products that allow it to promote life. A cell contains different molecules that are unique and perform fundamental roles in all living beings. Cells are the smallest independently functioning living matter.


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